小學英語基礎知識下篇
2019-07-19 16:12 | 編輯:川外外語培訓中心  來自:未知 
導讀:四、數詞:基數詞、序數詞 (1)1-20 one,two,three,four,five,six,seven,eight,nine,ten,eleven,twelve,thirteen,fourteen,fifteen, sixteen,seventeen,eighteen,nineteen,twenty (2)21-99 先說幾十,再說幾,中間加連字符。 23twenty-thr
四、數詞:基數詞、序數詞
(1)1-20
one,two,three,four,five,six,seven,eight,nine,ten,eleven,twelve,thirteen,fourteen,fifteen, sixteen,seventeen,eighteen,nineteen,twenty
(2)21-99 先說“幾十”,再說“幾”,中間加連字符。
23→twenty-three,34→thirty-four,45→forty—five,56→fifty-six,67→sixty-seven,78→seventy-eight,89→eighty-nine,91→ninety-one
(3)101—999先說“幾百”,再加and,再加末兩位數或末位數;
586→five hundred and eighty-six,803→eight hundred and three
(4)l,000以上,先從右往左數,每三位數加一個“,”,第一個“,”前為thousand.第二個“,”前為million,第三個“,”前為billion
1,001→one thousand and one
18,423→eighteen thousand,four hundred and twenty-three
6,260,309→six million two hundred and sixty thousand three hundred and nine
750,000,000,000→seven hundred and fifty billion
序數詞
(1)一般在基數詞后加th
eg.four→fourth,thirteen→thirteenth
(2)不規則變化
one→first,two→second,three→third,five→fifth,eight→eighth,nine→ninth,twelve—twelfth
(3)以y結尾的十位整數,變y為ie再加th
twenty→twentieth, forty→fortieth, ninety→ninetieth
(4)從二十一后的“幾十幾”直至“幾百幾十幾”或“幾千幾百幾十幾”只將個位的基數詞變為序數詞。
twenty-first,two hundred and forty-fifth
基數詞轉為序數詞的口訣:
基變序,有規律,詞尾加上-th.
一,二,三,特殊記,詞尾字母t,d,d.
八去t,九去e, ve要用f替。
若是碰到幾十幾,前用基來后用序。
第二部分:語法知識
四、數詞:基數詞、序數詞
(1)1-20
one,two,three,four,five,six,seven,eight,nine,ten,eleven,twelve,thirteen,fourteen,fifteen, sixteen,seventeen,eighteen,nineteen,twenty
(2)21-99 先說“幾十”,再說“幾”,中間加連字符。
23→twenty-three,34→thirty-four,45→forty—five,56→fifty-six,67→sixty-seven,78→seventy-eight,89→eighty-nine,91→ninety-one
(3)101—999先說“幾百”,再加and,再加末兩位數或末位數;
586→five hundred and eighty-six,803→eight hundred and three
(4)l,000以上,先從右往左數,每三位數加一個“,”,第一個“,”前為thousand.第二個“,”前為million,第三個“,”前為billion
1,001→one thousand and one
18,423→eighteen thousand,four hundred and twenty-three
6,260,309→six million two hundred and sixty thousand three hundred and nine
750,000,000,000→seven hundred and fifty billion
序數詞
(1)一般在基數詞后加th
eg.four→fourth,thirteen→thirteenth
(2)不規則變化
one→first,two→second,three→third,five→fifth,eight→eighth,nine→ninth,twelve—twelfth
(3)以y結尾的十位整數,變y為ie再加th
twenty→twentieth, forty→fortieth, ninety→ninetieth
(4)從二十一后的“幾十幾”直至“幾百幾十幾”或“幾千幾百幾十幾”只將個位的基數詞變為序數詞。
twenty-first,two hundred and forty-fifth
基數詞轉為序數詞的口訣:
基變序,有規律,詞尾加上-th.
一,二,三,特殊記,詞尾字母t,d,d.
二,八去t,九去e, ve要用f替。
ty將y變成i,th前面有個e.
若是碰到幾十幾,前用基來后用序。
 
五、介詞:常用介詞:in, on, at, behind等
1.at表示時間概念的某一個點。(在某時刻、時間、階段等)。
at 1:00(dawn,midnight,noon)在一點鐘(黎明、午夜、中午)
 
2.on
1)表示具體日期。
注:(1)關于"在周末"的幾種表示法:
at(on)the weekend在周末---特指
at(on)weekends在周末---泛指
over the weekend在整個周末
during the weekend在周末期間
(2)在圣誕節,應說at Christmas?而不說on Christmas?
2)在(剛……)的時候。
On reaching the city he called up his parents.
一到城里他就給父母打了一個電話。
 
3.in
1)表示"時段"、"時期",在多數情況下可以和during互換,前者強調對比,后者強調持續。 in(during)1988(December,the 20th century)在一九八八年(十二月、二十世紀)
六、動詞:動詞的四種時態:
(1)一般現在時:
一般現在時的構成
1. be動詞:主語+be(am, is, are)+其它。如: I am a boy. 我是一個男孩。
2. 行為動詞:主語+行為動詞(+其它)。 如: We study English. 我們學習英語。
當主語為第三人稱單數(he, she, it)時,要在動詞后加"-s"或"-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese.瑪麗喜歡漢語。
動詞+s的變化規則
1.一般情況下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks
2.以s. x. sh. ch. o結尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes
3.以“輔音字母+y”結尾,變y為i, 再加-es,如:study-studies
(2)一般過去時:
動詞過去式詳解 動詞的過去式的構成規則有:
A、規則動詞
① 一般直接在動詞的后面加ed:如 worked , learned , cleaned , visited
② 以e結尾的動詞直接加d:如 lived , danced , used
③ 以輔音字母加y結尾的動詞要改y為i再加ed(此類動詞較少)如 study – studied carry – carried worry – worried (注意play、stay不是輔音字母加y,所以不屬于此類)
④ 雙寫最后一個字母(此類動詞較少)如 stopped
B、不規則動詞(此類詞并無規則,須熟記)小學階段要記住以下動詞的原形和過去式:sing – sang , eat – ate ,
see – saw , have – had , do – did , go – went , take – took , buy – bought , get – got , read – read ,fly – flew , am/is – was ,
are – were , say – said , leave – left , swim – swam , tell – told , draw – drew , come – came , lose – lost , find – found , drink – drank , hurt – hurt , feel – felt
(3)一般將來時:
基本結構:
①be going to + do;
②will+ do. be going to = will
I am going to go swimming tomorrow(明天). = I will go swimming tomorrow.
(4)現在進行時: am,is,are+動詞現在分詞
動詞現在分詞詳解 動詞的ing形式的構成規則:
① 一般的直接在后面加上ing , 如doing , going , working , singing , eating
② 以e 結尾的動詞,要先去e再加ing ,如having , writing
③ 雙寫最后一個字母的(此類動詞極少)有:running , swimming , sitting , getting
 
第三部分:句法
1.陳述句
(1)肯定句:是指用肯定的語氣來陳述的句子,如:I’m a student. She is a doctor. He works in a hospital.
There are four fans in our classroom. He will eat lunch at 12:00. I watched TV yesterday evening.
(2)、否定句:含有否定詞或表示否定意義詞的句子,如:I’m not a student. She is not (isn’t) a doctor.
He does not (doesn’t) work in a hospital. There are not (aren’t) four fans in our classroom.
He will not (won’t) eat lunch at 12:00. I did not (didn’t) watch TV yesterday evening.
 
 2. 疑問句
一般疑問句:是指詢問事實的句子,此類句子必須用“yes”,或“no”來回答。
特殊疑問句:以特殊疑問詞(what , where , who , which , when , whose , why , how等)開頭引導的句子。此類句子應該問什么就答什么,不能用“yes 、no”來回答。
 3.There be句型
There be 句型與have, has的區別
1、There be 句型表示:在某地有某物(或人)
2、在there be 句型中,主語是單數,be 動詞用is ; 主語是復數,be 動詞用are ; 如有幾件物品,be 動詞根據最*近be 動詞的那個名詞決定。
3、there be 句型的否定句在be 動詞后加not , 一般疑問句把be 動詞調到句首。
4、there be句型與have(has) 的區別:there be 表示在某地有某物(或人);have(has) 表示某人擁有某物。
5、some 和any 在there be 句型中的運用:some 用于肯定句, any 用于否定句或疑問句。
6、and 和or 在there be句型中的運用:and 用于肯定句, or 用于否定句或疑問句。
7、針對數量提問的特殊疑問句的基本結構是:
How many + 名詞復數 + are there + 介詞短語?
How much + 不可數名詞 + is there + 介詞短語?
8、針對主語提問的特殊疑問句的基本結構是:
What’s + 介詞短語?
 

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